Essential Fatty Acids for Fertility and optimal Biology: Balancing ARA, EPA, and DHA

Dr Agnes Ryu

When it comes to natural fertility and overall reproductive health, the balance of essential fatty acids in our diet plays a pivotal role.

Arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are key components that not only influence fertility but also impact our general wellbeing.

This blog post delves into the importance of these fatty acids, with a special focus on optimizing their balance for fertility enhancement.

Understanding Essential Fatty Acids

The Role of Arachidonic Acid (ARA)

ARA, a type of omega-6 fatty acid, is crucial for reproductive health. Historically, Arachidonic Acid (ARA) was often labelled as an inflammatory agent, leading to its negative perception in the context of health and nutrition.However, recent insights have dramatically shifted this view. Far from being merely inflammatory, ARA is now recognized for its multifaceted biological functions that are crucial for our body’s health. It plays a pivotal role in cell signalling, brain function, and muscle growth, and its involvement in the inflammatory response is more about regulation and balance, rather than causing harm. It is involved in the production of eicosanoids, which play a role in the regulation of inflammation and hormonal balance, both critical for fertility.This nuanced understanding underscores the importance of including ARA in a balanced diet, particularly for those focusing on fertility. Ensuring adequate ARA intake while cutting down on other omega-6 fats is beneficial for maintaining hormonal equilibrium. ARA are ubiquitous in animal meat but in small amount. The best source of ARA are Offals (e.g. kidney, liver, heart) and eggs.

Balancing EPA and DHA

Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, are equally vital. EPA, while beneficial in moderation, can impede ARA metabolism when consumed in excess. Hence, reducing EPA intake while ensuring sufficient DHA – known for its neurological benefits – is key. This balance supports not just reproductive health but also overall wellness.

The ARA/EPA Ratio

A higher ARA/EPA ratio is often recommended for optimal fertility. This ratio is crucial in maintaining the right balance of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, which are vital for a healthy reproductive system.

Special Considerations for Pregnancy

During pregnancy, paying close attention to DHA intake is crucial. DHA supports the neurological development of the fetus and is vital for the mother’s health. Ensuring adequate DHA, while balancing other fatty acids, is key during this critical period.

Concerns About Fish Oil Products

While fish oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids like EPA and DHA, is frequently touted for its health benefits, excessive intake can be counterproductive, particularly for fertility.

Overconsumption of fish oil may lead to an imbalance in the delicate ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids, potentially disrupting hormonal balance and inflammatory responses crucial for reproductive health.

Moreover, high levels of EPA, a component of fish oil, can impede the metabolism of Arachidonic Acid (ARA), which is vital for various bodily functions.

Recent concerns have surfaced regarding the quality of fish oil products, with studies indicating that some may be rancid or contain pollutants. These issues can diminish the health benefits and potentially pose risks.

In light of these findings, we advocate for the consumption of fresh seafood over fish oil supplements. Seafood not only provides a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids but also offers a broader spectrum of nutrients essential for health and fertility. By choosing a variety of seafood, individuals can enjoy the benefits of omega-3s in their most natural and potentially safer form, while also reducing the risk of consuming tainted or oxidized fish oil products.

Therefore, moderating fish oil intake and focusing on a balanced dietary approach is key to harnessing its benefits without the associated risks.



Balancing essential fatty acids is fundamental steps towards enhancing natural fertility. By focusing on the right mix of ARA, EPA, and DHA, individuals can significantly improve their reproductive health and overall wellbeing.

Agnes Ryu

Agnes Ryu

Dr. Ryu is a clinician and biochemist specializing in integrative medicine. Her clinical interests include fertility, hormones, metabolism, healthy ageing, menopause, and natural breast cancer care. As an integrative practitioner, Dr. Ryu aims to uncover the root causes of health issues and strives to empower patients with the knowledge and tools to take charge of their own health.

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